Top Level Name

  ⌊ Superfamily (core) Radical SAM

    ⌊ Subgroup BATS domain containing

Family known
Total 100% <100% Family unknown
Functional domains 8239 5779 0 2460
UniProtKB 6 0 0 6
GI 14 0 0 14
Structures 25
Reactions 0
Functional domains of this subgroup were last updated on June 25, 2017
New functional domains were last added to this subgroup on Oct. 7, 2014

The Biotin and thiamin synthesis-associated domain (BATS, IPR010722) is found as part of the functional domain in all members of this subgroup. It is especially associated with Biotin Synthase (BioB) and 2-iminoacetate synthase (ThiH), the latter of which is associated with thiamin biosynthesis. It is not completely clear exactly what the role of this domain is yet, it maybe involved in co-factor binding or dimerisation. All members of this subgroup also have secondary iron-sulfur clusters.

Vey JL, Drennan CL.

Structural insights into radical generation by the radical SAM superfamily

▸ Abstract

Chem Rev. 2011;111(4):2487-2506 | PubMed ID: 21370834

Phalip V, Lemoine Y, Jeltsch JM.

Cloning of Schizosaccharomyces pombe bio2 by heterologous complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant

▸ Abstract

Curr Microbiol. 1999;39(6):348-350 | PubMed ID: 10525840

Lotierzo M, Tse Sum Bui B, Florentin D, Escalettes F, Marquet A.

Biotin synthase mechanism: an overview

▸ Abstract

Biochem Soc Trans. 2005;33(4):820-823 | PubMed ID: 16042606

Quitterer F, List A, Eisenreich W, Bacher A, Groll M.

Crystal structure of methylornithine synthase (PylB): insights into the pyrrolysine biosynthesis

▸ Abstract

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2012;51(6):1339-1342 | PubMed ID: 22095926

Nicolet Y, Rubach JK, Posewitz MC, Amara P, Mathevon C, Atta M, Fontecave M, Fontecilla-Camps JC.

X-ray structure of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase maturase HydE from Thermotoga maritima

▸ Abstract

J Biol Chem 2008;283(27):18861-18872 | PubMed ID: 18400755

Family members of this subgroup include:

Biotin synthase (BioB) catalyses the final step in the biosynthesis of the cofactor biotin. It requires both S-adenosylmethionine, a [4Fe-4S] and a [2Fe-2S] cluster. The [2Fe-2S] cluster is the source of the sulfur that is inserted between the C6 and C8 of dithiobiotin. BioB utilises two molecules of SAM for each catalytic turnover and is stoichiometric in its use of SAM. AN electron transfer system is also required for catalytic activity. In E. coli, this is NADPH, flavodoxin and flavodoxin reductase.

HmdB represents a family of enzymes that are involved in the construction of the metallo-cofactor HmdA. They do not have the canonical CxxxCxxC motif, instead having a CX5CX2C motif.

HydE represents a family of enzymes that are involved in the maturation of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase active site, the exact role of this family of proteins is unknown, bur thought to be involved in the formation and incorporation of the -C#N and C#O ligands.

PylB (methylornithine synthase) represents a family of enzymes that are responsible for the first enzyme in the synthesis of pyrrolysine.




Sequence Similarity Networks

Download a Sequence Similarity Network of this subgroup (XGMML format ).

Network downloads are XGMML files that are readable by program such as Cytoscape. In these networks, nodes represent proteins and edges represent pairwise similarities better than a given edge-score cutoff. The edge score is either a bit score for full networks or mean E values for a Repnet. Additionally, these networks contain several attributes with data from the SFLD.

Select any restriction to apply to your network.
Maximum number of edges:
250K 500K 750K ALL
edge-score cutoff

Full sequence similarity network is not available for this superfamily due to its size.
Repnet: 50% ID (15-May-2017)

List of files included in the download. A detailed list of included node attributes, their definitions, and their uses [revised: 1/24/2014].

Although the download speed has improved please keep in mind that network files can be quite large. We are currently working on improving the network download and finding ways to make large networks manageable. Please see How to increase memory for Cytoscape.

Multiple Sequence Alignment

View the alignment of a representative set of sequences of this subgroup using

Multiple Sequence Alignment

Align one or multiple sequences to the alignment of a representative set of sequences of this subgroup.
Enter FASTA formatted sequence(s) : and view results using


Data Type All (#) Known (#) Unknown (#)
Full length FASTA (8239) (5779) (2460)
Complete annotation (.tsv) (8239) (5779) (2460)
Annotation suitable for Excel ® (.tsv) (8239) (5779) (2460)
Clear form

Some of these files can be quite large, please be patient during the download.

To identify your sequence later, please make sure to provide a header line starting with '>' for each sequence. Empty headers are allowed, but a header line is always required.
Cutoff Value
The least significant edge-score at which pairwise similarities are included in the network. A bit score for the full network, or a mean E value for the Repnet.
XGMML format
Open in Cytoscape via:
 →Network (multiple file types)
Download the annotation of all sequences as shown in the table below as a ͟Tab ͟Separated ͟Value (TSV) file. This file can be imported into a spreadsheet application.
Full length FASTA
Full length sequences in FASTA format.
Functional Domain FASTA
Sequences of the Functional Domain in FASTA format.
Complete annotation
Download complete annotation of sequences sets of this superfamily as a ͟Tab ͟Separated ͟Value (TSV) file. This file has all data but cell size can exceed the maximum supported by spreadsheet programs (such as Microsoft Excel ®).
Spreadsheet ready annotation
Annotation of sequences sets of this superfamily in a ͟Tab ͟Separated ͟Value (TSV) file. This file can be imported into a spreadsheet application. Cells which exceed the allowed spreadsheet maximum (32.5K) are preceded by the word "Truncated" and clipped short.
Total number of functional domains in this group.
Number of Functional Domains that have been manually or automatically been assigned to a family.
Number of Functional Domains that have not been assigned to a family.
Number of structures available from the PDB for members of this group.
Number of Functional Domains with 100% of Conserved Residues
Number of Functional Domains with less than 100% Conserved Residues
Depth of the multi-level Subgroup hierarchy.