Top Level Name
⌊ Superfamily (core) Isoprenoid Synthase Type I
⌊ Subgroup Terpene Cyclase Like 1 C Terminal Domain
|Total||=||Family known||+||Family unknown|
|Sequences of this subgroup were last updated on Oct. 24, 2013|
|New sequences were last added to this subgroup on Oct. 24, 2013|
Enzymes in this subgroup generally have two domains, with the C-terminal domain being a member of this subgroup and the N-terminal domain being a member of the Terpene Cyclase Like 1 N-term subgroup in the Isoprenoid Synthase Class II superfamily. It has been suggested that this gene family be designated tps (for terpene synthase). Sequence comparisons reveal similarities between the monoterpene (C10) synthases, sesquiterpene (C15) synthases and the diterpene (C20) synthases. It has been split into six subgroups on the basis of phylogeny, called Tpsa-Tpsg.
Bohlmann J, Steele CL, Croteau R
Monoterpene synthases from grand fir (Abies grandis). cDNA isolation, characterization, and functional expression of myrcene synthase, (-)-(4S)-limonene synthase, and (-)-(1S,5S)-pinene synthase
Grand fir (Abies grandis) has been developed as a model system for studying defensive oleoresin formation in conifers in response to insect attack or other injury. The turpentine fraction of the oleoresin is a complex mixture of monoterpene (C10) olefins in which (-)-limonene and (-)-alpha- and (-)-beta-pinene are prominent components; (-)-limonene and (-)-pinene synthase activities are also induced upon stem wounding. A similarity based cloning strategy yielded three new cDNA species from a wounded stem cDNA library that appeared to encode three distinct monoterpene synthases. After expression in Escherichia coli and enzyme assay with geranyl diphosphate as substrate, subsequent analysis of the terpene products by chiral phase gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that these sequences encoded a (-)-limonene synthase, a myrcene synthase, and a (-)-pinene synthase that produces both alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. In properties and reaction stereochemistry, the recombinant enzymes resemble the corresponding native monoterpene synthases of wound-induced grand fir stem. The deduced amino acid sequences indicated the limonene synthase to be 637 residues in length (73.5 kDa), the myrcene synthase to be 627 residues in length (72.5 kDa), and the pinene synthase to be 628 residues in length (71.5 kDa); all of these monoterpene synthases appear to be translated as preproteins bearing an amino-terminal plastid targeting sequence. Sequence comparison revealed that these monoterpene synthases from grand fir resemble sesquiterpene (C15) synthases and diterpene (C20) synthases from conifers more closely than other monoterpene synthases from angiosperm species. This similarity between extant monoterpene, sesquiterpene, and diterpene synthases of gymnosperms is surprising since functional diversification of this enzyme class is assumed to have occurred over 300 million years ago. Wound-induced accumulation of transcripts for monoterpene synthases was demonstrated by RNA blot hybridization using probes derived from the three monoterpene synthase cDNAs. The availability of cDNA species encoding these monoterpene synthases will allow an understanding of the regulation of oleoresin formation in conifers and will ultimately permit the transgenic manipulation of this defensive secretion to enhance resistance to insects. These cDNAs also furnish tools for defining structure-function relationships in this group of catalysts that generate acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic olefin products.
Structural biology and chemistry of the terpenoid cyclases
Oldfield E, Lin FY
Terpene biosynthesis: modularity rules
Terpenes are the largest class of small-molecule natural products on earth, and the most abundant by mass. Here, we summarize recent developments in elucidating the structure and function of the proteins involved in their biosynthesis. There are six main building blocks or modules (α, β, γ, δ, ε, and ζ) that make up the structures of these enzymes: the αα and αδ head-to-tail trans-prenyl transferases that produce trans-isoprenoid diphosphates from C(5) precursors; the ε head-to-head prenyl transferases that convert these diphosphates into the tri- and tetraterpene precursors of sterols, hopanoids, and carotenoids; the βγ di- and triterpene synthases; the ζ head-to-tail cis-prenyl transferases that produce the cis-isoprenoid diphosphates involved in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis; and finally the α, αβ, and αβγ terpene synthases that produce plant terpenes, with many of these modular enzymes having originated from ancestral α and β domain proteins. We also review progress in determining the structure and function of the two 4Fe-4S reductases involved in formation of the C(5) diphosphates in many bacteria, where again, highly modular structures are found.
Martin DM, Fäldt J, Bohlmann J.
Functional characterization of nine Norway Spruce TPS genes and evolution of gymnosperm terpene synthases of the TPS-d subfamily
Constitutive and induced terpenoids are important defense compounds for many plants against potential herbivores and pathogens. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst), treatment with methyl jasmonate induces complex chemical and biochemical terpenoid defense responses associated with traumatic resin duct development in stems and volatile terpenoid emissions in needles. The cloning of (+)-3-carene synthase was the first step in characterizing this system at the molecular genetic level. Here we report the isolation and functional characterization of nine additional terpene synthase (TPS) cDNAs from Norway spruce. These cDNAs encode four monoterpene synthases, myrcene synthase, (-)-limonene synthase, (-)-alpha/beta-pinene synthase, and (-)-linalool synthase; three sesquiterpene synthases, longifolene synthase, E,E-alpha-farnesene synthase, and E-alpha-bisabolene synthase; and two diterpene synthases, isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase, each with a unique product profile. To our knowledge, genes encoding isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and longifolene synthase have not been previously described, and this linalool synthase is the first described from a gymnosperm. These functionally diverse TPS account for much of the structural diversity of constitutive and methyl jasmonate-induced terpenoids in foliage, xylem, bark, and volatile emissions from needles of Norway spruce. Phylogenetic analyses based on the inclusion of these TPS into the TPS-d subfamily revealed that functional specialization of conifer TPS occurred before speciation of Pinaceae. Furthermore, based on TPS enclaves created by distinct branching patterns, the TPS-d subfamily is divided into three groups according to sequence similarities and functional assessment. Similarities of TPS evolution in angiosperms and modeling of TPS protein structures are discussed.
Sequence Similarity Networks
Download a Sequence Similarity Network of this subgroup (XGMML format ).
Network downloads are XGMML files that are readable by program such as Cytoscape. In these networks, nodes represent proteins and edges represent pairwise similarities better than a given E-value cutoff. Additionally, these networks contain several attributes with data from the SFLD.
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A detailed list of included node attributes, their definitions, and their uses is available here [revised: 10/11/2013].
Multiple Sequence Alignment
Multiple Sequence Alignment
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The maximum E-value at which pairwise similarities are included in the network.
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